I think if one wanted to remove this apparent contradiction between RO and ANH in an edit, you could add some new off-screen dialogue during the first shots of Vader on the bridge, where we hear some Imperial officers say something like:
Officer 1: Sir, the rebel flagship is sending a transmission.
Officer 2: Track it!
Then, when Jyn and Cassian die, you fade to white and that is the last we see of Scarif. When we fade back in, it would be the shot of the Tantive IV somewhere in space. Now we can just assume the rebels beamed the plans to them from an unknown secondary location.
I like this idea, but I can already imagine people being like, “So you removed the best scene in the movie?!”